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1. Understanding the social role of the historian.
2. Understanding of the fact that historical debate and research is permanently developing.
3. Ability to use specific techniques needed for the study of documents from particular periods, such as palaeography and epigraphy.
4. Knowledge of national history.
5. Ability to design, organise, and develop historical research projects.
6. Critical knowledge of the relationship between current and past events and processes.
7. Ability to manage information and communications technology so as to be able to produce historical facts, or facts related with history (for example, statistical or cartographical methods, databases etc.).
8. Ability to read historiographic texts and documents in another language.
9. Knowledge of methods and problems of the different branches of historical investigations: economic, social, political, gender studies etc.
10. Knowledge of local and regional history.
11. Ability to take part in interdisciplinary research work.
12. Ability to recognise, contribute to, and participate in socio-cultural community activities.
13. Ability to use tools to compile information, such as bibliographical catalogues, archive inventories, and electronic references.
14. Knowledge and respect for points of view deriving from different cultural, national, and other backgrounds.
15. Critical knowledge of the general diachronic framework of the past.
16. Knowledge of native languages, if necessary.
17. Knowledge and ability to use theories, methods, and techniques from other social and human sciences.
18. Critical knowledge of different historiographic perspectives from different period and contexts, including current debates.
19. Knowledge of universal or world history.
20. Ability to communicate and argue orally and in written form in the native language of the relevant country, in accordance with usual terminology and techniques of the profession.
21. Ability to apply historical education techniques and methods.
22. Ability to transcribe, summarise, and catalogue information in appropriate forms.
23. Ability to identify and appropriately use sources of information: bibliographies, document, oral testimony etc., for historical research.
24. Ability to define research terms which can contribute to historiographic knowledge and debate.
25. Knowledge of the history of America.
26. Ability to coherently organise complex historical information.
27. Ability to comment on, annotate, and correctly edit texts and documents in accordance with the critical norms of the discipline.